Development Trend and Farmers Benefit in Pre-germinated Direct Seeding Method Adoption in Thailand (in English)
In the recent past, rice farming in Thailand has simultaneously changed. A wide adoption of modern rice technology, particularly in irrigated areas has importantly generated improvements in yield and higher cropping intensity. An increasing land use intensity consequently resulted a shortage of grazing land and higher cost of animal care for land preparation which in turn stimulated farmers to substitute power tillers to animal labors. The adoption of power tiller, on the other hand, directly reduced time for land preparation which, in turn, improved rice crop cycle. Furthermore, a rapid country development toward higher growth of non-agricultural sector has continuously stimulated farm labor out-migration to cities which, in turn, created labor shortage in rural areas. The shortage of farm labor supply in irrigated area, particularly in the peak season, and the rise in wage rate significantly affected farming activities, particularly during transplanting and harvesting. A prolong transplanting activity reduces rice cropping intensity which finally affects farmers annual income. On the other hand, a higher wage rate raised production cost and diminished farm profit. As a consequence of these pressures, a pre-germinated direct seeding (PDS) method has been introduced for alleviation of labor shortage during transplanting activity. Questions are how widely they have been adopted and how much benefit they have given in terms of yield, cost, and net return. The answer to these questions is largely related to production environment, water conditions, and modern variety (MVs) adoption.
This paper aims to discuss regional differences in PDS method adoption and farmers benefit from its adoption. After introduction, section 2 highlights rice production environments and a development trend of this technology adoption Farmers, benefit is examined in section 3. section 4 discusses a future trend in PDS method adoption the last section is conclusion.
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